160 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. was almost exterminated and the land reverted to desert. In the Jahan Gusha we read as follows : " Not one- thousandth of the population escaped/' and again, " If from now to the Day of Judgment nothing hinders the growth of population, it cannot reach one-tenth of the figure at which it stood before the Mongol conquest/' These words, even with all allowance for exaggeration, express human misery at its deepest, and our finite minds, the products of a civilized age, can barely grasp their full meaning. Most fortunately. Southern Persia escaped the Mongol blast of death, and it was probably owing to this happy circumstance that the recovery was ultimately more rapid than could have been anticipated. The Death of Chengiz Khan> A.H. 624 (1227).—The last campaign undertaken by Chengiz Khan was the in- vasion of Tangut, which was overrun and ravaged. The Great Conqueror, feeling his end approaching, appointed Ogotay, his third son, to be his successor and advised his sons to avoid internal strife. He then passed away in the sixty-sixth year of his reign. His body was takqi to his Urdu,1 and, in order to prevent his death frotfi becoming known, every one whom the troops met on the road was killed. His Character and Genius.—Thus in a river of blood passed to his sepulchre Chengiz Khan, who had destroyed more human beings than any other recorded victorious warrior, and had conquered the largest empire the world had known. It must not be assumed, because of his appalling thirst for blood, that he was lacking in genius. On the contrary, he had shown unquestionable genius in his early career when battling, never daunted, against adverse circumstances, and step by step he built up an empire which raised the despised nomads of Tartary to the lordship of Asia. His organization was founded on a unit of ten men, whose chief obeyed a centurion, who in turn obeyed the commander or a thousand, and so up to the commanders of divisions. His policy was false, but successful. 1 The word means ^Camp," and "horde" is a corruption of it. The language commonly known as Hindustani is more correctly termed Urdu, and derives its name from the fact that it originated in the camp of the Moghul Emperors of Delhi.